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Security of Systems and Networks

September 21, 2017 Part 4 Modern Crypto Hashing

Jaap van Ginkel

SSN Modern Cryptography

Hashes

MD5

SHA

SHA-2

SHA-3

Presentations

Minimum 20 minutes Research question Related research Approach/Experiments Conclusions Open standards/Open Source Example implementations or demo Your findings and personal view

Reports

Individual contribution

Who wrote what.....

Depth and clarity more important than length

Discuss and read drafts of report

Deadline 24th December

Some Crypto Properties

Deniable Encryption

Plausible Deniability Perfect Forward Secrecy Non-repudiation Anti-replay Proof of delivery

HASH or Message Digest

Crypto Hash Function Crypto hash function h(x) must provide

Compression output length is small Efficiency h(x) easy to compute for any x One-way given a value y it is infeasible to find an

x such that h(x) = y Weak collision resistance given x and h(x),

infeasible to find y x such that h(y) = h(x) Strong collision resistance infeasible to find

any x and y, with x y such that h(x) = h(y) Lots of collisions exist, but hard to find any

Pre-Birthday Problem

Suppose N people in a room How large must N be before the

probability someone has same birthday as me is 1/2 ?

Solve: 1/2 = 1 (364/365)N for N We find N = 253

Birthday Problem How many people must be in a room

before probability is 1/2 that any two (or more) have same birthday?

1 365/365 364/365 (365N+1)/365 Set equal to 1/2 and solve: N = 23

Surprising? A paradox? Maybe not: Should be about sqrt(365)

since we compare all pairs x and y And there are 365 possible birthdays

Non-crypto Hash (1) Data X = (X0,X1,X2,,Xn-1), each Xi is a

byte Define h(X) = X0+X1+X2++Xn-1 Is this a secure cryptographic hash? Example: X = (10101010, 00001111) Hash is h(X) = 10111001 If Y = (00001111, 10101010) then h(X) =

h(Y) Easy to find collisions, so not secure

Non-crypto Hash (2) Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) Essentially, CRC is the remainder in a

long division calculation Good for detecting burst errors

Random errors unlikely to yield a collision But easy to construct collisions CRC has been mistakenly used where

crypto integrity check is required (e.g., WEP)

Popular Crypto Hashes MD5 invented by Rivest

128 bit output Note: MD5 collisions easy to find

SHA-1 A U.S. government standard, inner workings similar to MD5

160 bit output Many other hashes, but MD5 and SHA-1

are still widely used Hashes work by hashing message in

blocks

Crypto Hash Design Desired property: avalanche effect

Change to 1 bit of input should affect about half of output bits

Crypto hash functions consist of some number of rounds

Want security and speed Avalanche effect after few rounds But simple rounds

Analogous to design of block ciphers

Cryptographic Hash

Different from parity or CRC ! Also known as Message Digest Input always delivers fixed length output Hash properties

Easy to compute

One-way (Can't go back)

Collision-resistant (No two inputs result in same hash)

Output should be as random as possible (Avalanche)

(cryptool demo)

Merkle-Damgrd Construction

HASH Algorithms

MD MD2 MD4 MD5 (IETF RFC1321), SHA SHA-1 (NIST) SHA-2 (Collection) (SHA-256/224 512/384) SHA-3 (Last NIST competition) 2012

Demo fraud exam results

Birthday AttackExam Results for the course SSN of the master education SNE=====================================================

Course: MSNSSNP6 [Security of Systems and Networks]Exam date: Oktober 23 2017Credits: 6 ECTSTeacher: Jaap van Ginkel

Student First Last Result======= ===== ==== ======10255443 Tomas Billum 6.210297138 Chris Kuipers 7.910286500 Robin Klusman 5.910220348 Sjors Haanen 8.110268707 Luc Gommans 5.610257314 Peter Prejavara 4.110289585 Adrien Raulot 7.3

Hash

Brute force Attacks

Exhaustive search Collision Attacks

Find m1 and m2 where hash(m1) = hash(m2) Preimage Attacks

Find m for hash(m) = h Second Preimage Attacks

Find m2 for given m1 where hash(m2) = hash(m1)

MD5

128 bit Hash Broken since at least

2005 Still used a lot :-(

MD5 Algorithm

128 bit hash 512 bit block processing Padding with 1 then 0 64 Rounds in 4 groups Mi is Message block Ki is Constant F is nonlinear function

SHA

Secure Hash Algorithm 1993 NIST FIPS SHA-0/SHA-1 Similar to MD5 160 bit Lots of research From 2^80 to 2^69 Move to SHA-2

256 and 512 bit SHA-3 challenge

SHA-2

SHA-3 BLAKE Blue Midnight Wish CubeHash (Bernstein) ECHO (France Telecom) Fugue (IBM) Grstl (Knudsen et al.) Hamsi JH Keccak (Keccak team, Daemen et al.) Luffa Shabal SHAvite-3 SIMD Skein (Schneier et al.)

SHA-3 History

Guido Bertoni, Joan Daemen, Michael Peeters, and Gilles Van Assche

Based on RadioGatn, a successor of PANAMA from 1998 Presented at the NIST Hash Workshop (SHA-3) in 2006 End of 2008 52 candidates selected July 2009, 14 algorithms were selected for the second round.

Keccak advanced to the last round in December 2010 October 2, 2012, Keccak won competition (adapted) In 2014, the NIST has published a draft FIPS 202 "SHA-3 Standard:

Permutation-Based Hash and Extendable-Output Functions" August 5, 2015 NIST announced that SHA-3 had become a hashing

standard.

HMAC

Keyed-hash message authentication code MAC + Encryption HMAC-MD5 HMAC-SHA-1 Cryptool demo

Slide 1Slide 2Slide 3VerslagenSlide 5Slide 6Crypto Hash FunctionPre-Birthday ProblemBirthday ProblemNon-crypto Hash (1)Non-crypto Hash (3)Popular Crypto HashesCrypto Hash DesignHashSlide 15Slide 16Slide 17Slide 18Slide 19Slide 20Slide 21Slide 22Slide 23Slide 24Slide 25